ARTIKEL - Juli 2009, Vol.6, No.1
Efektivitas penurunan jumlah angka kuman alat makan dan efisiensi biaya yang digunakan pada metode pencucian alat makan di Rumah Sakit Kota Surakarta
Annisa Andriyani1, I Made Alit Gunawan2, Joko Susilo2
Background : Proper process of dishwashing has an important role in the prevention of disease transmission because unclean dishes that contain microorganism can transmit diseases through foods. Therefore, the process of dishwashing has to fulfill the standard of health. Currently, there are three methods of dishwashing in the hospital; electronic dishwashing, three compartment sink (TCS), and conventional method. They have the same purpose, i.e. cleaning dishes. To find out effectiveness and efficiency of those three methods, it is necessary to know the germ rate and cost spent.
Objective :To identify the effectiveness of germ rate reduction and cost efficiency of electronic dishwashing, TCS, and conventional method of dishwashing at hospitals in Surakarta Municipality.
Method : This experiment used randomized design trial. Populations were all dishes at hospitals of Surakarta Municipality with certain criteria. Hospitals that fulfilled the criteria were Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Prof. Dr. R. Soeharso Orthopedic Hospital, and Banjarsari Hospital. There were six items of samples consisting of two plates, two drinking glasses, and two spoons. The number of experiment units in the study were 3 experiments x 3 times repeating x 6 items of dishes x 2 evaluations totaling 108 units of experiment. Analysis used t-test, ANOVA, and cost effectiveness.
Result : Washing process used electronic dishwashing, TCS, and simple method could reduce the different numbers of germs, those amounted to 84 colony/cm2, 1,276.38 colony/cm2, and 321.27 colony/cm2, respectively. TCS was the most effective and efficient method in reducing the number of germ. The cost only Rp 1,00 to reduce 15.56 colony/cm2 using TCS method.
Conclusion : There were different reductions of germ rate after dishwashing used electronic dishwashing, TCS, and conventional methods. Among them, TCS was the most effective and efficient method in reducing germ rate.
Key words : washing method, dishes, germ rate, cost effectiveness
1STIKES Aisyiah Surakarta, Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara No. 10, Jebres, Surakarta
2Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Yogyakarta, Jl. Tatabumi No. 3 Yogyakarta
Status gizi dan hubungannya dengan kejadian diare pada anak diare akut di ruang rawat inap RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta
Astya Palupi1, Hamam Hadi2, Sri Suparyati Soenarto3
Background In Indonesia diarrhea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children especially those under five years of age. The Household Health Survey 2000 and 2003 shows an increase of diarrhea morbidity rate from 300 to 374 per 1,000 people. At the inpatient ward of Dr. Sardjito Hospital in 2005, diarrhea was found as the major cause of patients being hospitalized. One of the causes of high diarrhea morbidity rate is poor nutritional status. In 2002, the prevalence of undernourished children in Indonesia was 27.3% and in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Territory was 11.39%. Ultimately, nutritional status and diarrhea are related to each other, which lead to very famous "vicious cycle", diarrhea causes malnutrition and malnutrition causes diarrhea.
Objective : To identify relationship between nutritional status and the duration of diarrhea.
Method : This observational study was conducted with retrospective cohort design using the data of medical records and surveillance of diarrhea at Dr. Sardjito Hospital from September 2005 to September 2006. Subject of the study were 138 children of 6 months to 5 years old suffering from acute diarrhea. Data analysis used Fisher's exact test and one way ANOVA.
Result : The average duration of diarrhea among undernourished children was 101.0 + 28.28 hours, wasted children was 96.31 + 16.69 hours, normal nourished children was 65.06 + 6.90 hours, and well nourished children was 64.52 + 11.70 hours. There was a significant relationship between nutritional status and the duration of diarrhea (p < 0.05).
Conclusion : There was a significant relationship between nutritional status and the duration of diarrhea. This means that children with poor nutritional status would likely suffer longer from diarrhea.
Key words : nutritional status, acute diarrhea, duration of diarrhea
1RSUD Dr. Aloei Saboe Kota Gorontalo, Jl. Dr. Aloei Saboe, Kelurahan Wongkaditi Timur, Kecamatan Kota Utara, Kota Gorontalo, Sulawesi Utara
3Bagian Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
Status gizi, asupan zat gizi mikro (kalsium, magnesium) hubungannya dengan sindroma premenstruasi pada remaja putri SMU Sejahtera di Surabaya
Irine Christiany1, Mohammad Hakimi2, Toto Sudargo3
Background : Premenstrual syndrome generally known as the interruption the existing hormonal changing during menstrual cycle that will disturb the emotional and physical comfortable. It works on women during the reproductive age. The syndromes are denoted by the amount of signs and symptoms that occurred during fase luteal at the menstruation cycle. Psycho-emotional problems are more than common premenstrual complaint, although physical anxiety more often occurred during menstruation period. Factors of micronutrient intake (calcium, magnesium) greatly affect mood and behavior during premenstrual syndrome.
Objective : The study was to identify relationship between nutritional status, micronutrient intake (calcium, magnesium), and premenstrual syndrome among female adolescence.
Method : The study was observational or non-experimental which used cross sectional design. The populations were female adolescence of Sejahtera Senior High School at Surabaya. Samples were taken using total sampling technique because the subject had been determined to those aged 16–18 years. As many as 97 people fulfilled inclusion criteria. Data processing and analysis used univariable, bivariable, and multivariable techniques. Statistical test used logistic regression.
Result : The result of the study showed that there was no significant relationship between good nutritional status and occurence of premenstrual syndrome (p = 0.086; OR = 2.278; 95% CI = 0.980-5.295), between calcium intake and premenstrual syndrome (p = 0.032; OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.176-7.200), between magnesium intake and premenstrual syndrome (p = 0.012; OR = 3.319; 95% CI = 1.369-8.043). There was significant relationship between calcium and magnesium intake and premenstrual syndrome.
Conclusion : The result of multivariable analysis showed that nutritional status, intake of calcium and magnesium had significant relationship with premenstrual syndrome.
Key words: nutritional status, micronutrient intake, calcium, magnesium, premenstrual syndrome
1Prodi Keperawatan Sutopo Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Surabaya, Jl. Parang Kusumo No. 1 Surabaya
2Magister Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak-Kesehatan Reproduksi (KIA-KR) UGM, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Pola makan dan kebugaran jasmani atlet pencak silat selama pelatihan daerah Pekan Olahraga Nasional XVII Provinsi Bali tahun 2008
Putu Ayu Widiastuti1, B.M. Wara Kushartanti2, B.J. Istiti Kandarina3
Background : The fulfillment of nutrient intake is a basic need of athletes. The result of observation to some athletes with varied branches of sport indicates that nutrition and physical exercise will simultaneously bring better output. Presently, attention to the administration of nutrition for athletes is lacking, moreover at local level. Meanwhile, providing good nutrition is as important as maintaining sports achievement.
Objective : The study aimed to identify support of eating pattern to physical exercise of Bali self-defence athletes during local training of National Sports Week XVII Province of Bali.
Method : This was a descriptive analytical study which used qualitative and quantitave approaches and cross sectional design. Subjects of the study were all of 26 self defence athletes participating in local training at National Sports Week Province of Bali. Data gathered were eating pattern, physical fitness (VO2 max and body fat percent), and physiological condition (hemoglobin level). Support of eating pattern to physical exercise was measured in terms of physical fitness using regression and correlation analysis.
Result : Most of nutrient intakes of Bali self-defences athletes were low in carbohydrate but high in fat and protein. Statistical analysis showed that there were correlation and effect of vitamin C and Fe intake to VO2 max. There were correlation and effect of carbohydrate to body fat percent. There was protein affected hemoglobin level.
Conclusion : Adequate consumption of nutrients was needed to support athletes in doing physical exercise during training period.
Key words : dietary pattern, energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamin C, Fe, physical fitness, haemoglobin concentration, self-defence athletes
1 UPTD Balai Pelayanan Kesehatan Komunitas Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Bali, Jl. Tjut Nyak Dien No. 1, Renon, Denpasar, e-mail:
Pola, tren, dan perbedaan praktik menyusui di Indonesia: analisis deskriptif peran modernisasi dan budaya tradisional dari data Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia 2007
Siswanto Agus Wilopo1
Background : A modernization can lead to the adoption of western behavior while cultural values can also prevails, resulting in rejection of certain aspects of modernity. The question is how such conflicting forces affect breastfeeding practices in Indonesian women.
Objective : This study examined modern and traditional factors that may affect pattern, trends and differentials of breastfeeding in Indonesia.
Methods : The study based on data from Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS) conducted in 2007. There were 32.895 women or 19.939 children born after January 2002 and contributed to this information. We used duration of breastfeeding as dependent variables which based on information pertained to the last two children of respondent. The variable was calculated as the number of months that the mother reports having breastfed the child. The early use of supplementary food for children and the use of health services were examined to represent cultural values and modernity respectively. Socio-economic and demographic variables were considered important variables for breastfeeding practices. Kaplan Meier graphs were employed for the analysis of pattern, trends, and differentials of breastfeeding.
Result : In Indonesia, the duration of breastfeeding varied between provinces. There was a trend of shortening of duration breastfeding about two months during 5 years period. Factors associated with modernity were significant determinant in shortening breastfeeding practice. These included: type of residence (urban or rual), level of education, prenatal care, previous or ever use of contraceptives, delivery at the hospital, and the use of an infant formula.
Conclusion : Factors associated with modernity were significant in terms of early termination of breastfeeding. Traditional factors associated with breastfeeding practice did not show significant roles in maintaining the breastfeeding practice. We recommend to use a social enginering to include breastfeeding practice as a part of modern health practices.
Key words : breastfeeding, patterns, trends, differentials, Indonesia
Kejadian mikropenis pada anak obes
Siswanto Basuki1, Madarina Julia2, Soeroyo Machfudz3
Background : Obese children are more likely to have less testosterone, which may lead to disorder of penile development.
Objectives : To assess the association between obesity in children and the occurrence of micropenis.
Methods :TA cross sectional study was carried out in 36 obese and 28 non- obese pubertal male children (10-13 years old) and 49 obese and 36 non-obese prepubertal male children (4-7 years old). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) equivalent to or above the 95th percentile of the CDC 2000 growth reference standard. Length of the penis was measured perpendicular to the surface of the os symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Skinfold thickness was measured on the area of mons pubis using a caliper. Volume of the testis was measured using an orchidometer.
Results : The mean (SD) of penis length in 36 pubertal obese and 28 non-obese children were 5.56 (1.14) cm and 6.05 (1.37) cm, respectively; whereas the mean (SD) of penis length in 49 pre-pubertal obese and 39 non-obese children were 5.09 (0.76) cm and 5.36 (0.56) cm, respectively. There was significant difference in the mean (95% CI) length of penis in pubertal obese and non-obese children (p = 0.04). Fisher's exact test showed that the occurrence of micropenis was not associated with obesity, age, fat thickness on mons pubis, and volume of the testicles.
Conclusion : There was no significant difference in the occurrence of micropenis, but there was significant difference in the mean length of penis in obese children and children with normal age-related body mass index.
Key words : penis length, obesity, micropenis
1 RS dr. Soeroto Ngawi, Jl. Wahidin No. 27, Ngawi, e-mail:
3 Bagian Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
Konseling gizi dan pengaruhnya terhadap asupan zat gizi dan tekanan darah pada pasien hipertensi rawat jalan di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara
Suwarni1, H.A.H. Asdie2, Herni Astuti3
Background : Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases that can be an important public health challenge. The causes of hypertension are high consumption of salt and fat, obesity, stress, age, sex, family history, smoking, and consumption of alcoholic drinks. The prevalence of hypertension in the world, Asia, and Indonesia are 15-20%, 8-18%, and 1,8-28,6%, respectively. The solution to this problem is not only depend on drugs but also counseling through leaflet as the process of assisting clients in facing the problem of hypertension.
Objectives : To know the effect of nutrition counseling on nutrition intake and blood pressure of hypertension outpatients at local hospital of the Province of Southeast Sulawesi.
Methods : The study was quasi experimental with pre- and post-control design. Samples were divided into 2 groups; intervention group was given nutrition counseling and leaflet and the second (control) was only given leaflet. Samples were hypertension outpatients who fulfilled inclusions and exclusions criteria, and there were 25 samples per group. Data of nutrient intake were processed using Nutrisurvey. Chi-square test was used to identify the difference between the intervention group and the control group; whereas t-test was used to identify independent as well as dependent variables.
Results : There were no significant differences in intake of fat, natrium, potassium, and magnesium between the intervention group and control group (p > 0.05); but there were differences between them at the end of study (p < 0.05). Blood pressures of both of them were also not different (p > 0.05); however, at the end of study there was difference between them (p < 0.05).
Conclusion : Nutrition counseling could improve nutrition intake and blood pressure of hypertension outpatients at local hospital of the Province of Southeast Sulawesi.
Key words : nutrition counseling, nutrient intake, blood pressure
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan R.I. Kendari Jurusan Gizi, Jl. R. Suprapto No. 45, Kendari, e-mail:
3 Instalasi Gizi RSUPDr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta